Darkness in El Dorado - Archived Document
Internet Source: American Anthropological Association
AAA Committee for Human Rights: Annual Report Year 2000
Prepared by CfHR Chair Barbara Rose Johnston
CfHR elected members (1999-2000): Barbara Rose Johnston (chair), Jim Peacock, Megan Biesele, Sheila Dauer, John Haviland, Linda Raben, Ellen Gruenbaum, Linda Green. Members who retire at the end of the November 2000 meeting: Linda Raben and Jim Peacock. Members whose terms begin after the end of the November 2000 meeting: Janet Chernela chair-elect) and Ruben Mendoza.
CfHR ex-officio members: Louise Lamphere, Don Brenneis
AAA staff: Peggy Overbey
CfHR pro bono counsel: Paul Magnarella
The Committee for Human Rights work falls broadly into internal and external categories. The Committee's internal mission is to stimulate informed involvement in the human rights area among professional anthropologists through publications, panels, and network building. The Committee's external mission is to gather information on selected, anthropologically relevant, cases of human rights abuse and to propose action in the name of the Association to the Association's leadership.
Committee guidelines include goals, objectives and implementing strategies, and are posted on the CfHR website. At their April 1, 2000 meeting the CfHR further developed guidelines to include the following objectives:
1. promote and protect human rights;
2. expand the definition of human rights within an anthropological perspective;
3. work internally with the membership of the AAA, to educate anthropologists, and to mobilize their support for human rights;
4. work externally with foreign colleagues, the people and groups with whom anthropologists work, and other human rights organizations to develop an anthropological perspective on human rights and consult with them on human rights violations and the appropriate actions to be taken;
5. influence and educate the media, policy makers, non-governmental organizations, and decision makers in the private sector; and,
6. encourage research on all aspects of human rights from conceptual to applied.
CfHR efforts to achieve these objectives occur at the biannual meetings of the CfHR, at the annual conference of the AAA, and throughout the year, through committee task force work, and through case-specific requests for urgent action. The CfHR has posted their operating guidelines on their website, and periodically reprints these in the Anthropology newsletter. These guidelines include procedures for submitting human rights cases to the CfHR, and operating procedures for responding to membership issues and complaints.
This report briefly describes those actions and activities taken by the CfHR in its' fifth year (November 1999-November 2000) under the following three headings: Organizational Matters, Internal Actions, and External Actions. Supporting documents (letters, reports and other briefing materials) can be found on the CfHR website.
PART ONE: ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS
A. Recognizing that the work of the CfHR often involves sensitive legal issues, and that CfHR documents and related materials often contain discussion of controversies and alleged human rights abuse, the CfHR has recognized the need to strengthen the review process of their public materials to insure concerns are raised in legally defensible ways. During the spring 2000 meeting, the CfHR agreed to accept anthropologist/lawyer Paul Magnarella's offer to act as pro bono counsel for the human rights committee. Counsel duties include reviewing committee minutes, reports, and action items (letters, statements, etc) before public release (on the website, to agencies or organizations, etc); and other duties as identified and deemed appropriate by the pro bono counsel and the CfHR.
B. During the spring 2000 meeting, the CfHR agreed to reorganize meeting schedules to formally meet twice a year (before and during the AAA annual conference, and in the spring of each year) and to advertise these meeting obligations as part of the call for nominations to committee membership.
C. During the spring 2000 meeting, the CfHR agreed to request expansion of their annual budget to include costs associated with task force investigations/findings, pro bono counsel attendance at meetings, per diem associated with attending the annual meeting (in addition to currently funded spring meeting), administrative costs associated with chairing the committee. During the Fall 2001 business meeting Peggy Overbey reported that our budget request for business meeting support during the fall annual conference was funded. Elected members of the CfHR will receive 50% AAA travel reimbursement and 50% of one day per diem for attending the fall 2001 meeting in Washington DC.
D. During the Fall 2000 meeting Barbara Rose Johnston was reappointed Committee Chair through 11/2001. Janet Chernela was appointed chair-elect (term beginning at the end of the fall 2001 meeting).
E. During the Fall 2000 meeting the CfHR discussed communications and case development procedures and agreed that there is a strong need to revise and publicly disseminate case submission and investigation policies that include reference to confidentiality mechanisms and communications protocols. Sheila Dauer agreed to draft a revised set of case procedures for consideration at the Spring 20001 meeting. CfHR members expressed the desire to see statements dealing with the following concerns:
1. informants have the right to confidentiality;
2. dissemination of allegations must be done in a rights-protective fashion, and this should be specified;
3. allegations must be corroborated by at least two independent sources before allegations can be accepted as a case for concern and public AAA discussion of allegations can occur;
4. the CfHR holds authorship of briefing papers that accompany documented human rights abuses, unless individual contributors give permission to use their names;
5. public disclosure of any issue or action taken by the CfHR occurs with prior permission of the CfHR;
6. statements concerning CfHR actions or findings made are made by designated CfHR representatives who are current members of the committee.
PART TWO: INTERNAL ACTIONS: Addressing the Membership
A. Communications: CfHR list serve. At the November 1999 meeting of the CfHR, the committee agreed to establish a self-moderated list-serve for AAA members interested in human rights issues. During the spring of 2000 the CfHR worked with AAA staff to develop list rules and advertise the formation of the list serve in the Anthropology Newsletter and through email postings. The list serve has been in operation since April 2000. The list is intended for discussion of anthropology and human rights among the members of the AAA and the AAA's Committee for Human Rights. Topics may include, but are not limited to, discussion of cases of human rights abuse, identification of anthropologists working in areas where human rights issues are raised, and consideration of activities of the Committee for Human Rights. To join this list, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org with the message SUBSCRIBE.
B. Publications and internet (web-based, brochures, etc). During the November 2000 meeting Ruben Mendoza took on the charge of reworking the CfHR web page to update content and include incorporation of graphic images. Revision prototypes will be prepared in time for the SPRING CfHR meeting.
C. Task Force on Womens Rights. At the November 2000 meeting task force chairs Ellen Greunbaum and Sheila Dauer reported that the Task Force has developed a draft "white paper" on women and human rights. This paper is being expanded to constitute a "handbook" that will focus on broad issues (cultural relativism vs. Universal human rights issues). The handbook will include case studies emerging from scientific sessions sponsored by the CfHR and the AFA over the past three years. The target audience for the handbook is people who work on WID (Women in Development), human rights community, AAA members, human rights students. The handbook will also provide tools (information to understand organizations, issues, declarations).
D. Task Force on Ethnic Cleansing. During the spring 2000 meeting, the CfHR agreed to continue the Ethnic Cleansing Task Force efforts to development a position paper and explore various ways to communicate Task Force findings. At the November 2000 meeting of the CfHR, Ethnic Cleansing Task Force chair Jim Peacock presented the Task Force product to the CfHR-- the Ethnic Cleansing Statement. The document defines ethnic cleansing, indicates causal factors, and suggests what anthropologists can do. Omission of forensics component noted. The statement emphasis on prevention was recognized by Sheila Dauer as an important contribution, as many NGOs work reactively, not with prevention in mind. The CfHR accepted the document and Task Force contributions were gratefully acknowledged. The CfHR agreed that future use of the document will involve additional editing and refinement, and will include authorship as "a CfHR document with contributions from... " (task force contributors). The CfHR agreed to further edit the statement text to develop two versions -- one with language and tone for a disciplinary audience (published in AN and on our website); one with language and tone for media (brochure used in press kits). Barbara Johnston agreed to follow up on this and Peter Van Arsdale (U of Denver, Director of Center on Rights Development) volunteered to critically review existing text. Revised drafts of the document will be prepared for review and comment at the Spring 2001 meeting of the CfHR.
E. Possible task force on Coercive Conservation. The Anthropology and Environment section leadership expressed interest in co-sponsoring a task force examining conflicts between human rights and conservation agendas. The goal of the task force would be a position paper and summary statement of concern. Barbara Johnston will do follow up with Megan Biesele, A and E President Pete Brosius, and A and E President-elect Bonnie McCay. A task force proposal will be submitted at the spring 2001 CfHR meeting.
F. Possible task force on language rights as human rights. At the Spring 2000 meeting of the CfHR, John Haviland agreed to examine interest in a "Language Rights as Human Rights" Task Force with members of the Linguistics Section. At the Fall 2000 meeting, Haviland reported on mixed reception to his efforts to develop a cosponsored task force, and suggested refocusing efforts on developing a session for year 2001 meetings. Interest in a session included forensic issues (language rights as part of the due process), how to guarantee process without language protection. Language policies. Refugee language rights issues (UNHCR using linguists to confirm ethnic identity). Nonstandard language rights. Haviland will do follow up work on the viability of an organized session for year 2001, with a decision by March 1, 2001 and a follow up report at the Spring CfHR meeting.
G. Education and Outreach: Anthropology Newsletter Articles. During the spring 2000 meeting, the CfHR agreed to expand efforts to educate membership with regular columns published in the Anthropology Newsletter. Human Rights articles on CfHR-related news were written by Barbara Rose Johnston (May, September 2000). An article on Indigenous Peoples Rights by Paul Magnarella was published in April 2000. An article on the women and human rights conference in Beijing written by Sheila Dauer was published in the September 2000 issue.
H. Education and Outreach: Human Rights events at the 2000 Annual Meeting. The CfHR helped organized and/or cosponsored the following events at the AAA annual conference in November 2000:
Wednesday Evening CfHR Business Meeting (chaired by Barbara Rose Johnston)
Scientific session "Militarization, Democracy and Everyday Life: Anthropological Perspectives" (CfHR member Linda Green coorganizer with Lesly Gill )
CfHR Special Event panel "Fieldwork in High Conflict Zones: Praxis, Ethics and Human Rights" (former CfHR member Lucia McSpadden, organizer)
Special Event "Ethical Issues in Field Research Among the Yanomami: Part 1" (organized by the AAA President and President elect and cosponsored by the CfHR and the Committee on Ethics. Panel was chaired by CfHR's legal counsel Paul Magnarella.
Special Event "Ethical Issues in Field Research Among the Yanomami: Part II" (organized by the AAA President and President elect and cosponsored by the CfHR and the Committee on Ethics).
CfHR cosponsored with Anthro and Env Scientific Session "Indigenes, Indigenists, Environmentalists and Human Rights: Computabilities and Incompatibilities, Advocacy and Environmental Anthropology" (former CfHR chair Les Sponsel, organizer)
CfHR sponsored Scientific Session "Taking Action: Women and Human Rights" (CfHR members Ellen Greunbaum and Sheila Dauer organizers)
Presidential Session/public lecture entitled "Uncovering the "Disappeared": Clyde Snow and Forensic Anthropologists' Work for Justice" and a public reception. Session chaired by Jim Peacock. Public lectures by Clyde Snow, Fredy Peccerelli and Mimi Doretti. In addition to the initial organizing efforts, the CfHR played an active role in raising funds for this event and developing local media and NGO outreach efforts.
Special Event "CfHR Open Forum" (chaired by Barbara Rose Johnston)
Sunday morning CfHR Business Meeting (chaired by Barbara Rose Johnston)
PART THREE: External Human Rights Initiatives-- CfHR Case Involvement
A. During the year 2000, the CfHR has continued to follow up on human rights issues involving the peoples of the Kalahari, land rights and related issues in Brazil, US Congressional funding for Columbia and related impacts on indigenous peoples, and large infrastructure development projects in Brazil, Chile and the Congo. New cases brought to the attention of the CfHR include possible involuntary resettlement associated with an expansion of an international commercial satellite launch site in Alcantara, Brazil; human rights abuses directed towards forensic anthropologists and others working towards reparations in Guatemala; alleged involvement of anthropologists and other scientists in the abuse of Yanomami human rights; and allegations of new instances of coercive conservation in Africa.
B. Coercive Conservation. During the spring 2000 meeting, the CfHR agreed to pursue further research on coercive conservation as an international issue. The CfHR agreed to explore establishing a new task force on human rights dimensions of implementing environmental policy or conservation agreements during the November 2000 meeting. Should the new task force recommend it, the CfHR agreed to post their efforts in this area on the CfHR website. A task force proposal will be presented at the spring 2001 meeting.
C. Update on the issues involving the peoples of the Kalahari. Megan Biesele reported to the CfHR at the Fall 2000 meeting new instances of human rights abuse associated with conservation policies in the Kalahari game reserve. Recommended action points: (1) develop a CfHR 1 page position on "coercive conservation" with specific reference to the AAA human rights declaration. This statement could be used as a problem statement for the task force (item 3); and, used to accompany case-specific reports highlighting alleged abuses (mailed to NGOs and Anthropological organizations). (2) In the Kalahari case, letters of support and concern for alleged abuses should be drafted and sent to several bodies. Materials will be reviewed and additional follow up action taken at the spring 2000 meeting.
D. The Pehuenche Case. The CfHR continued to follow events associated with hydroelectric dam development on the Bio-Bio River, and the related plight of the Pehuenche People. In May 2000 CfHR member Linda Raben attended a meeting at the IFC introducing the newly created Office of the Ombudsman to the NGO community. Raben raised questions concerning the status of involuntarily displaced indigenous peoples on this IFC-funded project.
In October 2000 the CfHR provided copies of its briefing paper "The Pehuenche: Human Rights, the Environment, and Hydrodevelopment on the Biobio River, Chile" and associated AAA-World Bank correspondence to Claudio Gonzalez, a Chilean sociologist working with Pehuenche peoples displaced by Pangue and Ralco Dams on the BioBio River in Chile. Gonzalez used these materials in support of his request for intervention by International Finance Corporation (IFC) Ombudsperson Meg Taylor to examine the case of involuntary displacement experienced by the Pehuenche family Sotomayor Riquelme. No additional action was requested at this time.
In July 2000 the CfHR provided a copy of its briefing paper "The Pehuenche: Human Rights, the Environment, and Hydrodevelopment on the Biobio River, Chile" to the World Commission on Dams for consideration during its July 2000 meeting in South Africa. This document included a critical review of the Pehuen Foundation-- a public/private profit sharing mechanism-- and the case study helped inform the WCD's recommendations on social impact mitigation and equity participation in future dam development.
E. Guatemala Reparations and Human Rights concerns. At the April 2000 meeting of the CfHR Linda Raben reported on a presentation by Clyde Snow on the role of forensic anthropology in reparations processes in Guatemala and Argentina. The CfHR agreed to pursue the possibility of a public lecture on this topic for the year 2000 annual meeting. The CfHR, with other members of the AAA, solicited cosponsorship agreements and worked with bay area-based NGOs to promote the event.
In October 2000, CfHR chair Barbara Rose Johnston gave a presentation on the legal basis for reparations in human rights law at a UC Berkeley public event on Guatemalan Reparations and Human Rights concerns. On November 2, 2000, following CfHR recommendations, a letter of concern for growing incidence of abuse of human rights workers, especially those involved in Guatemala's truth and reconciliation process, was signed by AAA President Louise Lamphere and mailed to appropriate parties.
On November 16, 2000 the CfHR acted as cosponsor of the Presidential Session /public lecture entitled "Uncovering the "Disappeared": Clyde Snow and Forensic Anthropologists' Work for Justice." This session was chaired by CfHR member Jim Peacock with presentations by Clyde Snow, Fredy Peccerelli and Mimi Doretti.
F. Alcantara, Brazil Case. This case was brought to the CfHR attention in October 2000, shortly after the US signed a treaty with Brazil to provide funding to allow expansion of an existing military base to support commercial launching of satellites. Expansion will allegedly displace a number of afro-brazilian villages and further impact previously displaced peoples. The CfHR agreed that additional efforts were needed to corroborate alleged abuses and to identify specific actions the AAA might take. Peggy Overbey agreed to follow up with efforts to corroborate (outlined in her memo attached to agenda packet). Linda Raben agreed to play a continued role as CfHR-emeritus with this case, including drafting a summary of the issues and call for closer examination. The CfHR discussed strategies to inform advocacy organizations concerned with forced relocation, with the goal of introducing this concern on their advocacy agenda.
G. CfHR concerns over social impacts of studying the Yanomami. At the spring 2000 meeting the CfHR approved an Open Forum for the November 2000 meetings involving emeritus members of the CfHR who would update the membership on human rights issues previously dealt with by the CfHR. The CfHR chair was charged with contacting emeritus members for input and suggestions and developing an Open Forum agenda. In August 2000, emeritus member Terry Turner responded to the emeriti invitation from the CfHR chair Barbara Johnston with a request to use the Open Forum time at the upcoming AAA meetings to address the allegations of human rights abuse resulting from the Napoleon Chagnon's work with the Yanomami published in a forthcoming book by Patrick Tierney (Darkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon). Turner reported that excerpts from the book would be printed in a forthcoming issue of the New Yorker. The CfHR chair alerted the committee and the AAA leadership as to the forthcoming publication. The CfHR assisted AAA leadership in identifying background documents, and identified anthropologists who have worked in the region. The CfHR assisted AAA leadership in developing organizational responses, including a panel discussion of the book. At their November 2000 meeting, the AAA Executive Board established a committee to review the "Darkness in El Dorado" book with specific reference to the relationship between allegations and AAA human rights and ethics statements. AAA President Louise Lamphere appointed retiring CfHR member and past AAA President Jim Peacock as committee chair. Three CfHR members and three Ethics Committee members were also appointed to this committee. The Committee will present their report and recommendations to the Executive Board at their February 2001 meeting.
H. Human Rights-related publications and public presentations by CfHR members during year 2000.
Book. Paul Magnarella. Justice in Africa: Rwanda's Genocide, Its National Courts, and the UN Criminal Tribunal. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Press, 2000. (Recipient of the Association of Third World Studies "Book of the Year 2000" Award).
Book. Linda Raben, Fierce Legion of Friends: A History of Human Rights Campaigns and Campaigners. Forthcoming.
Book. Linda Green, Fear as a Way of Life: Mayan Widows in Rural Guatemala. New York: Columbia University Press. In Press.
Book. Linda Green, Mayas, Snow Peas and La Violencia in Fourth World Rising: Studies in Indigenous Peoples. Politics in the Americas series, Gerald Sider and Kirk Dombrosky series eds. Omaha: University of Nebraska Press. In Press.
Monograph. Megan Biesele and Steve Barclay. "Ju/íhoan Women's Tracking Knowledge and its Contribution to their Husbandsí Hunting Success." In African Study Monographs Supplement 27. January 2000 (1-18). Kyoto, Japan.
Book Series. Barbara Rose Johnston, Editor and author of the Series Preface. "Endangered Peoples: Struggles to Survive and Thrive in a Globalized World" (Greenwood Pub. Group, Westport, Connecticut). Volume editors Les Sponsel, Tom Greaves, and Robert Hitchcock are all former chairs of the CfHR, and a number of CfhR emeritus members are contributing authors to this series. Volumes on Endangered Peoples of Southeast and East Asia (Leslie Sponsel, ed.); Endangered Peoples of the Arctic (Milton Freeman, ed.) published in April 2000. Endangered Peoples of Oceania (Judith Fitzpatrick, ed.) published January 2001. Endangered Peoples of Latin America (Susan Stonich, ed.); Endangered Peoples of Europe (Jean Forward, ed.); Endangered Peoples of North America (Tom Greaves, ed.) to be released in February 2001. Endangered Peoples of Africa and the Middle East Robert Hitchock, ed.) and Endangered Peoples of Central and South Asia Barbara Brower, ed.) in press (May 2001 scheduled publication date).
Edited Volume. Paul Magnarella, "Human Rights and Human Diversity" in Global Bioethics (Guest Editor) Vol. 12, No. 1 (2000) In Press.
Coedited Volume. Linda Green and Lesly Gill. Biting the Bullet: Economic Restructuring Military Reorganization, and Everyday Life in the Americas and Southern Africa. (Santa Fe: School of American Research Publications). Book Chapter. "Democracy and Impunity in Post-War Guatemala: Liberal Discourse and Lived Reality" Forthcoming.
Book Chapter. Barbara Rose Johnston, "The Anthropology of Trouble: Ideals, Experiences, and Hard-learned Lessons" in Thinking and Engaging the Whole: Essays on Roy Rappaport's Anthropology, edited by Ellen Messer and Michael Lambeck. (University of Michigan Press). In press.
Book Chapter. Jim Peacock, "Belief Beheld Again: Inside and Outside the Anthropology of Religion." Thinking and Engaging the Whole: Essays on Roy Rappaport's Anthropology. Eds. Ellen Messer and Michael Lambek. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. In Press.
Book Chapter. Megan Biesele and R.B. Lee. "Local Cultures and Global Systems: the Ju/íhoansi/!Kung Forty Years," In Longterm Fieldwork in Social and Cultural Anthropology. R. Kemper and E. Colson, eds., 2nd. Ed. New York: Academic Press. In Press
Book Chapter. Megan Biesele and Bob Hitchcock. "Ju/íhoan-Language Education in Namibia and its Relevance for Minority-Language Education in Botswana" in Botswana: The Future of the Minority Languages. H. Batibo and B. Smieja, eds., Frankfurt: Peter Lang. 2000.
Book Chapter. Barbara Rose Johnston, "Anthropology and Environmental Justice: Analysts, Advocates, Mediators and Troublemakers" in Anthropology and the Environment, edited by Carole Crumley. (New York: Routledge). In press.
Book Chapter. Barbara Rose Johnston, "Human Environmental Rights" in Human Rights: New Perspectives, New Realities, Second Edition, edited by Adamantia Pollis and Peter Schwab. (New York: Praeger Publishers). 2000.
Book Chapter. Barbara Rose Johnston, "Human Rights and the Environment" in Classics of Practicing Anthropology:1978-1998, edited by Patricia Higgins and J. Anthony Parades. (Oklahoma City:Society for Applied Anthropology). Reprinted from Practicing Anthropology 16:1 (1994): 8-12). 2000.
Book Chapter. Jim Peacock, "Action Comparativism: Efforts toward a Global and Comparative yet Local and Active Anthropology" In Directions in Comparativism. Andre Gingrich and Richard Fox, eds. London: Routledge. In Press
Journal Article, Paul Magnarella. "Achieving Human Rights in Africa: The Challenge for the New Millennium," African Studies Quarterly v. 4, n. 2 (2000). "http://www.clas.ufl.edu/africa/asq/" www.clas.ufl.edu/africa/asq/
Journal Article, Paul Magnarella. "Promoting Peace, Human Rights and National Security: Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa," in Social Justice, Anthropology, Peace and Human Rights, v. 1, nos. 1-4, pp. 99-110, (2000).
Volume Preface, Paul Magnarella. "The Challenges of Women's Activism and Human Rights in Africa, Diana Fox & Naima Hasci (eds.) Women's Studies Vol. 20. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2000.
Journal Article. Barbara Rose Johnston, "Nuclear Compensation in the Marshall Islands" with Holly Barker. Cultural Survival Quarterly (Summer 2000).
Bulletin Chapter. Barbara Rose Johnston, "Anthropology and Human Rights" in Bulletin of the National Association of Practicing Anthropologists (NAPA), Special issue on practitioner profiles, edited by Paula Sabloff. (American Anthropological Association). 2000.
Bulletin Article. Jim Peacock, "Theory and Practice in Anthropology and by Anthropologists," Bulletin of the National Association of Practicing Anthropologists (NAPA) #8. Carole E. Hill, ed. American Anthropological Association. 2000.
Newsletter Article. Jim Peacock, "Eye to Ear and Mouth to Hand," Anthropologist Newsletter, March 2000.
Newsletter Article. Sheila Dauer, "Update from the Beijing Conference on Women and Human Rights" Anthropology News, October 2000.
Newsletter Article. Paul Magnarella, "The Human Rights of Indigenous Peoples in International Law" Anthropology News, April 2000.
Newsletter Article. Linda Raben, "Forensics for Justice" Public Affairs Column, Anthropology News, May 2000.
Newsletter Article, John B. Haviland, "Language Rights and the AAA Committee for Human Rights" Society for Linguistic Anthropology Column, Anthropology News, September 2000.
Article. Jim Peacock, "Remember Who You Are" (Commentary on Identity), Ideas. National Humanities Center, Vol. 6, no.2, 2000, pp. 25-26.
Article. Jim Peacock, "Public or Perish," Global View. UCIS, Winter 2000.
Encyclopedia Article. Jim Peacock, "Values," In Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier Science Limited. In Press.
Policy Paper. Barbara Rose Johnston, "Reparations and the Right to Remedy" Briefing Paper Prepared for the World Commission on Dams. July 2000. Thematic Review #13, elements incorporated into the WCD final report (November 16, 2000). Thematic Review accessable on the WCD website.
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